Title: Eye on the monsoon
Issue: South-west monsoons
Syllabus: General Studies-III - Environment - Environmental Pollution
Context: India Meteorological Department has predicted a ‘normal rainfall’ scenario in India. However, they have observed a significant possibility of a deficit
1) The India Meteorological Department is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology’
2) Significance of the monsoons in India: The monsoon is crucial for the 60% of gross cropped area in farming that is rain-fed. Around 50% of India’s total food output comes in the form of summer crops. A delayed monsoon can lead to supply issues and even accelerate food inflation.
3) Recently there has been an increase in erratic behavior of monsoons in India. Sudden on-burst of Indian monsoons, coupled with non-uniform coverage, long-breaks in precipitation.
4) Possible reasons for the rise in erratic behavior of the Indian monsoons
- Atmospheric changes caused by pollution
- Particulate matter released through various industrial and agricultural processes
- Some of these aerosols suppress the rainfall and disperse it across the land, causing long breaks in precipitation, while others absorb heat and lead to a convection phenomenon that increases rainfall in some places
5) Furthermore, falling groundwater level has placed more emphasis on the South-west monsoon
6) What should government do?
- set up of new recharging wells
- help the farmers raise the efficiency of irrigation
- Build structures to harvest rainwater. Example: Lakes, wetlands, ponds etc
- reduce pollution in industries to the largest extent possible
- Use of fossil fuels and biomass should be reduced
- Rainwater harvesting should be made mandatory
Takeaway point: Policymakers in our country should take a more proactive and dynamic role to prevent pollution and loss of rivers, wetlands and lakes that hold precious waters.
|#||Previous UPSC Question||Marks||Year|
|1||What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment? (150 Words, 10 Marks)||10||2018|
|2||The Namami Gange and National mission for clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs? (200 words)||13||2015|
|3||Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth. (200 words)||13||2014|
|4||Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? (200 words) 10 marks||10||2013|
|5||Why do environmentalists regard asbestos and polythene as pollutants? (150 words)||2005|
|6||Global Warming''-Discuss. (250 words)||2004|
|7||What are greenhouse gases? What impact do they have on the Earth's climate and with what consequences? Elaborate. (150 words)||2000|
|8||What do you understand by Environmental Pollution? Mention the various kinds of pollution and their effect on human health in India. (150 words)||1992|
|9||State the types of environmental pollution and some of the places where it has occurred due to the progress of industrialization in India. Which parts of India were mainly affected by the severe drought of 1987 − 88? What were its main consequences?||1988|
|10||Objectives of Ganga Action Plan. Explain in brief the benefits of the plan||1985|
|11||Indicate the sources of atmospheric pollution in the major urban centers in India and the steps to be taken to minimise the problem.||1979|
|12||Indicate the sources of atmospheric pollution in the major urban centers in India and the steps to be taken to minimise the problem.||1979|