Displaying 5 of 5 records

Title: Inching closer to the brink: on JCPOA

Issue: Iran nuclear deal

Syllabus: General Studies-II - International Relations - Important events around the World

Context: Middle East has seen various events which have in recent past disturbed peace, heightened tensions between the countries in the world.

Highlights

  1. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA): The JCPOA was the result of prolonged negotiations between 2013 and 2015 between Iran and P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, U.K., U.S. and the European Union).
  2. What is the deal about? The agreement obliged Iran to cut down its nuclear enrichment programme, placed restrictions on certain aspects such as that of production of heavy water.
  3. However, recently, Iran has said it would not observe the deal in its entirety. The reason for this is the unilateral sanctions imposed on Iran by USA.
  4. USA under Trump had cited alleged breaking of the deal by Iran. However, no such evidence was given in that regard
  5. The U.S. had re-imposed sanctions on Iran that had been eased under the JCPOA.
  6. Other countries who were signatory to the deal have criticized USA for this step
  7. US further has heightened the tensions by naming Islamic revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and in a recent move also has sent an aircraft carrier to the region
  8. Iran’s response: Iran has said it would not observe the deal in its entirety. The reason for this is the unilateral sanctions imposed on Iran by USA. There are fears that Iran could also close Strait of Hormuz
  9. Europe’s stand: Apart from criticizing US unilateral actions. European Union is trying to establish a mechanism where trade could carry on with Iran through a barter system. Hence, bypassing dollar trade.
  10. Iran’s concern: US sanctions has hit major export of its economy, i.e, Oil. Iran has given 60 days time for European Union to sort out the issue. Failure to do so would give hardliners in Iran a chance calling for the scrapping of the whole nuclear deal
  11. Consequences of such action: Complete failure of the deal might push Iran to restart development of nuclear weapons again which would put the peace in middle east again in danger

Takeaway point: European countries should take the lead in salvaging the Iran nuclear deal. It should address Iran’s concerns and make sure the capability of Iran to develop nuclear weapons is prevented.

Keywords: Iran nuclear deal unilateral sanctions USA European union
 

Currently there are no previous questions available.

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: Facing the climate emergency

Issue: Climate change

Syllabus: General Studies-III - Environment - Climate Change

Context: So, far, climate change policies are being formulated in a political manner. This needs to undergo a change for better fighting the challenge of climate change

Highlights

  1. According to a recent paper published, it has been found out that poorer countries suffer more because of climate change rather than rich countries. Example: India’s GDP growth penalty between 1961 and 2010 is in the order of 31% for the period, whereas Norway gained about 34% on a per capita basis.
  2. Some of the issues associated with the climate change fight:
  • In India, the idea of fighting climate change is restricted to few institutions rather than a mass movement.
  • It has also been observed that there has been collusion between elite corporations and governments to use climate change has an opportunity to make more money.
  • Arctic discourse is no longer about the conservation of biodiversity but rather in exploiting natural resources present in the country
  • Climate change projects which are implemented through donation foreign agencies have not been implemented effectively. Corruption is the major reason for it.
  • In the garb of climate change policies, policies are being formulated in a centralized manner. Example: amendments made to the Indian Forest Act
  1. What could be done?
  • There has been a large scale movement at the ground level by common people to force governments to take action on climate change. Example: Greta Thunberg, a school student who has drawn the attention of the world to climate change. Such mass movement should be encouraged
  • Governments across the globe can declare a climate emergency like the one did in UK parliament

Takeaway point: Small fixes by the government and institutions can no longer help to fight climate change; rather we need major overhaul of our lifestyles and patterns of consumption which is led by mass participation of people from across the globe

Keywords: Climate change Mass participation Greta Thunberg
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? 15 2017
2 ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? 13 2016
3 Examine the cause and the extent of ‘desertification’ in India and suggest remedial measures. (250 words) 15 marks 2012
4 “The Indian independence movement was a mass-based movement the encompassed various sections of society. It also underwent the process of constant ideological evolution.” Critically examine. (250 words) 15 marks 2012

Title: Leaders and growth

Issue: Political system

Syllabus: General Studies-II - Indian Polity and Constitution - Executive, Pressure Groups

Context: Political systems across the world tend to elect strong leaders. Example: Trump in USA, Erdogan in Turkey, Janos Ader in Hungary, Jair Bolsanaro

Highlights

  1. Some of the reasons why strong leaders are preferred are: they can take decisive actions in economic, defence sector etc
  2. Some of the studies on this subject has thrown up following observations:
  • The methods through which leadership impacts growth was through monetary and fiscal policy, not private investment
  • It has been found out that resilient leaders facing a lower probability of being replaced are less likely to reform institutions in the direction of constraining executive power.
  • It has been found out that more educated leaders ensure higher periods of growth compared to less educated leaders.
  • Leaders facing a lower probability of being replaced are less likely to reform institutions in the direction of constraining executive power.

Takeaway point: Political systems across the world continue to be tipped towards the ‘strong leaders’, more research needs to be done in this regard to understand it better and whether if it is a good development or not.

 

Keywords: Political system strong leaders
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions ? Analyse. (200 words) 10 marks 2014
2 Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. (200 words) 10 marks 2013
3 The exercise of executive clemency is not a privilege but is based on several principles, and discretion has to be exercised in public considerations. Analyze this statement in the context of the judicial powers of the President of India. (250 words) 15 marks. 20 2011
4 Pressure group are an anonymous empire and are an unofficial Government. Do you agree with above statement. Substantiate with reasons? 20 2009
5 Pressure groups and political parties share an intimate and inconclusive relationship. They work closely and are not the same. Analyse how political parties and pressure groups are different from each other? 20 2009
6 Pressure groups mushroomed in India but quality of work did not improve. Discuss the reasons for the rise in pressure groups and their failure to make impact in India. 20 2009
7 Pressure groups in India are not matured but they are too diverse. Analyse the characteristics of pressure groups in India? 20 2009
8 Functioning of pressure groups differ widely in India and western countries. Analyse 20 2009
9 Bring out the aberrations of the parliamentary system of government in India. (250 words) 2001
10 The office of the president of India was designed in the British mode, With this background consider the modification of the executive powers of the president by the 42 nd amendment, 1976 and the 44th amendment 1979 to the constitution of India. Comment on the changes. 1982
11 Describe briefly the legislative and executive powers of the President of India. Have there been any changes during the last decade? Offer your comments. 1981

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: Missing demand: on economic slowdown

Issue: Indian economy

Syllabus: General Studies-III - Indian Economy - Economic Development - Growth, Development, Poverty, Employment and Unemployment

Editorial: Missing demand: on economic slowdown

Context: Demand in the Indian economy has not been increasing in the Indian economy, the recent Index of Industrial production (IIP) also highlights this fact.

Highlights

  1. What is IIP? The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index for India which details out the growth of various sectors in an economy such as mineral mining, electricity and manufacturing
  2. What does the latest IIP say about the Indian economy?
  • Commercial vehicles has slid by 6%
  • IIP output fell 0.1% from a year earlier to a 21-month low
  • The capital goods sector shrank by 8.7%
  1. Factors that might cause further fall in demand are:
  • Rising US-China tension
  • If monsoon fails, then It would lead to a further decrease
  • West Asia crises involving Iran

Takeaway point: Appropriate policy measures should be put in place to reinvigorate demand in the Indian economy

Keywords: Index of industrial production Demand generation
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”.Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. (150 Words, 10 Marks) 10 2018
2 How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India? (250 Words, 15 Marks) 15 2018
3 Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential? (Answer in 150 words) 10 2017
4 One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective. 15 2017
5 What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth. 15 2017
6 Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential? 13 2016
7 What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth. 13 2016
8 The nature of economic growth in India in described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer. (200 words) 13 2015
9 Craze for gold in Indians have led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme. (200 words) 13 2015
10 “While we flaunt India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability.” What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain. (200 words) 13 2014
11 Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages short-sightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss. (200 words) 13 2014
12 With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications. (200 words) 10 marks 10 2013
13 Keeping in view the informal sector’s share in the total workforce in the country, critically examine the relevant inclusive measures initiated by the Government of India and their effectiveness. (250 words) 15 marks 30 2012
14 Critically review the international concern in achieving the targets set for the Millennium Development Goals. 30 2012
15 Why is international trade perceived to have failed to act as an “engine of growth” in many developing countries including India? 30 2012
16 Assess the significance of coastal regions in the economic development of India. (150 words) 15 marks. 30 2009
17 Examine the status of urbanization among the states in India and bring out spatial inequalities. (150 words) 15 marks. 30 2009
18 Describe the main sources of Industrial finance in India. How could India be benefitted from recent developments in International finance? (250 words) 2006
19 How has the Indian State tackled the trade-off between environment and development? (150 words) 2005
20 What is PURA? Discuss the major objectives. (150 words) 2004
21 What is the incidence of poverty in India? How should poverty alleviation programmes to constructed (250 words) 2001
22 Control over growth of population in India is an essential condition for the country's rapid economic development. Discuss. (250 words) 2000
23 Name the mega cities of India and mention their specific problems. (150 words) 30 1999
24 What are the geo-economic causes of underdevelopment of various regions in India? (150 words) 1998
25 How is absolute poverty line measured? What are the important measures taken by the Government to eradicate rural poverty in India (About 250 words)? 1998
26 Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to stifle the economic growth in India. Comment. (150 words) 1998
27 Comment on the view that Monetary Policy in India is used more as a stabilisation device rather than as a development tool. (150 words) 1998
28 What has been the role of NRIs in the economic development of India in the recent past? (150 words) 1998
29 What are the geo-economic causes of underdevelopment of various regions in India? (150 words) 1998
30 Describe the changes that have taken place in the direction of international trade of India since independence. (150 words) 1998
31 What measures has the Government of India taken for the development of Tribal areas in India? (150 words) 1997
32 Discuss the steps taken by the government in recent years to control inflation. (150 words) 1997
33 What measures has the government taken to make women economically independent and self-reliant during the last decade? (150 words) 1997
34 What measures has the Government of India taken for the development of Tribal areas in India? (150 words) 1997
35 Briefly comment on the purpose and type of changes made in our tax structure in the context of liberalisation and structural reforms during the first half of the 1990s. (150 words) 1996
36 How is poverty-line defined in India? Briefly enumerate the measures undertaken by the Government in recent years to alleviate poverty (150 words) 1996
37 What have been the recent recommendations of the World Bank on India's Family Welfare programme? How do these recommendations compare with those which emerged from the Cairo Conference on Population and Development in 1994? (About 250 words) 1995
38 Do you agree with the view that, in a country like India, a tax on wealth would be a useful supplement to the income tax? Argue the case in the light of Raja Chelliah Tax Reform Committee Report (About 250 words) 1995
39 Does reduction in fiscal deficit necessarily assure reduction in inflation? (150 words) 1995
40 Do you think that income tax reduces economic incentives? Give your reasons. (150 words) 1995
41 It is being suggested that the commercial banks in India should reduce their holdings of nonperforming assets. Does it mean that the former should abandon social priorities (About 250 words)? 1994
42 What was the rationale of the Mahalanobis Strategy of economic growth? (150 words) 1994
43 Indicate briefly the tax reforms that have been introduced in India after the coming in of the New Economic Policy (150 words) 1994
44 What is exclusive economic zone of a country. Discuss its relevance to India. (150 words) 1994
45 . It is claimed that the price situation in India improved considerably in 1992 − 93 with a gradual decline in the annual rate of inflation in the course of the year. What are the factors that moderated the inflationary pressures? (150 words) 1993
46 In a developing country like ours what according to you, should be the basis of taxationincome or consumption? Spell out your arguments clearly. (150 words) 1993
47 Explain the term Integrated Rural Development Bringing out its strategic importance. (150 words) 1992
48 Analyze the main defects of Indian Trade Union Movement. (150 words) 1991
49 Bring out the main features of India's Trade Policy (150 words) 1991
50 What, according to you, are the remedies to the problem of rural indebtedness in India? (150 words) 1991
51 What usually is meant by the expression an underdeveloped economy? What, according to you, are the basic causes of underdevelopment in India (About 250 words)? 1991
52 Discuss the measures taken in the Five-Year Plans to mitigate rural poverty (About 250 words). (40) 1991
53 What is the economic rationale behind the establishment of growth centers? Explain briefly the criteria for selecting three growth centers. (150 words) 1990
54 State and explain briefly the economic implications of the Right to Work. (150 words) 1990
55 Discuss the factors that have led to the recent increase in the general price level and the measures taken by the Government to Combat it. (150 words) 1990
56 What measures have been taken under the Five Year Plans increase employment opportunities in rural areas? (150 words) 1990
57 Despite having high saving and investment rates. India is experiencing a low growth rate. Why is it so? (150 words) 1989
58 What is the economic rationale for undertaking the Backward Area Development Programme? Discuss the specific measures taken by the Government in this direction. (150 words) 1989
59 What is meant by a high cost economy? Has India developed into a high cost economy and if so, how? (150 words) 1989
60 What are the salient features of the hill economy of Northern India, and how do these account for its relative backwardness? (150 words) 1989
61 Discuss the problem of rural unemployment in India. What specific schemes have been launched by the Government to generate employment opportunities in rural areas (About 250 words)? 1987
62 In course of planned economic development India’s actual growth has mostly been lower than the projected growth. How would you explain this shortfall? 1986
63 What are the principle components of economic infrastructure? Inadequacy of infrastructure as well as the poor utilization have been the principle bottleneck in economic development. comment 1984
64 Inflation has been one of the major and persistent cause of poverty and inequality in India’ Analyse. 1983
65 In their emphasis policy planners on the primacy of the rate of economic growth, some attention has been paid to structural and ideological objective of planning in India. critically examine the satement. (About in 150 words ) 1982
66 Describe the various types of unemployment in India What are the measures devised in the Sixth Plan to deal with the unemployment? 1982
67 The phenomenon of rising prices has been largely responsible for Indian economy and planning cut of welfare; it also causes hardship to the people. What are the basic reasons for continuous inflation in India and what has been the government strategy to control it? What specific measure have been taken by the Government of India for controlling inflation (Not more than 200 words)? 30 1981
68 Unemployment in India is of many types and therefore a complex issue. describe the nature if the problem and the measures adopted to deal with it particularly in rural areas (about 150 words) 1981

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: Miles to go: on South African elections

Issue: South African elections

Syllabus: General Studies-II - International Relations - Important events around the World

Context: Cyril Ramaphosa’s victory in recent South African election should be utilized by the leader to rid South African democracy of issues that has caused damage to it in recent times. Example: corruption, rent-seeking

Highlights

  1. Background to Cyril Ramaphosa election: His predecessor Jacob Zuma stepped down due to charges of corruption, particularly among the political elite who indulged in “state capture” — rent-seeking built on the marketisation of the South African state.
  2. Such undesirable values has led to decline in popularity of African National Congress (ANC)
  3. What needs to be done?
  • The newly elected president should trim the Cabinet and oust those associated with illicit dealings.
  • Unemployment is high in South African society, this issues needs to be addressed.
  • ‘Public patronage’ for only few which was carried out by Mr Zuma should also be discontinued.
  • Leaks in public finances was one of the highlight in the previous government this needs to be rectified

Takeaway point: Cyril Ramaphosa must work tirelessly to reform governance and to increase the economic growth so that South Africa once again gets on the path of true progress

Keywords: South African elections Cyril Ramaphosa Jacob Zuma
 

Currently there are no previous questions available.

Currently there are no previous questions available.