Displaying 6 of 6 records

Title: Begusarai, metaphor of a secular crisis

Issue: Social justice, secularism

Syllabus: General Studies-II - Indian Polity and Constitution - Elections, Representation of Peoples Act

Context: Indian politics has not been able to break the caste barrier when voting in elections. Ideals such as secularism and social justice are subjugated to caste identity

Highlights

  1. Initially, Congress in the name of Social justice gave representation to dalits to the exclusion of certain other communities in India. Muslim were attracted towards Congress due to secularism credentials
  2. However, the exclusion of certain communities and the rise of few other parties in India. particularly BJP and Janata party led to decline in the popularity and support for Congress
  3. BJP has come with the Hindutva ideology to attract voters; Janata party has used the ideal of ‘social justice’ to attract other communities which felt excluded.
  4. Traditional voters who were believed to have voted for a particular party are changing this behavior
  5. More than representation for a particular community, emphasis is given to security of that community.

Takeaway point: Secularism in India has only being followed in words rather than in action. Caste identities should not be allowed to overtake secular credentials of the society

Keywords: Social justice secularism Elections
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (10) 2018
2 To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? (250 words) 2017
3 Examine the impact of Regional Political Parties in Indian politics. (150 words) 15 marks. 2008
4 what are the Main determination of voting behavior in India? (250 words) 2007
5 Identify the major electoral reforms which are necessary in the Indian Political System. (150 words) 2000
6 Is it correct to describe the party system in India as One party Dominant system ?give reasons for your answer. 1985
7 Why was it considered necessary to pass the anti-defection bill ? In what ways is it likely to improve the political health of the country? 1984
8 Despite all talk of an effective opposition why has it not been possible to develop an effective opposition in India? Enumerate the principle impediments to the achievements if the much desired political objective 1983
9 The Phenomenon of Political defection in India assumed large proportions in recent years. Bring out the factor responsible for the growth of this phenomenon. Is it right to say than ban on defection will amount to suppression of thought and action? 45 1981

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: The anatomy of a marginalized region

Issue: Marginalization of communities in India

Syllabus: General Studies-II - Indian Polity and Constitution - Elections, Representation of Peoples Act

Identity based politics has led to marginalization of various communities in India. Seemanchal region is one such example

Highlights

  1. Seemanchal region in Bihar has a significant population of minorities, particularly Muslims
  2. The voting percentage in this area has always been greater when compared to the state-wise percentage in Bihar
  3. However, this has not led to any development in the region. It fares bad in most welfare indices
  4. Observations made in this region over the years:
    1. Muslims are not a homogenous group who vote on a religious voting pattern
    2. Their high participation is for the rise in their standard of living and based on welfare rather on religion

Takeaway point: Elections in India should move from caste and religion based politics to rights based politics

Keywords: Social justice regional development
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (10) 2018
2 To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? (250 words) 2017
3 Examine the impact of Regional Political Parties in Indian politics. (150 words) 15 marks. 2008
4 what are the Main determination of voting behavior in India? (250 words) 2007
5 Identify the major electoral reforms which are necessary in the Indian Political System. (150 words) 2000
6 Is it correct to describe the party system in India as One party Dominant system ?give reasons for your answer. 1985
7 Why was it considered necessary to pass the anti-defection bill ? In what ways is it likely to improve the political health of the country? 1984
8 Despite all talk of an effective opposition why has it not been possible to develop an effective opposition in India? Enumerate the principle impediments to the achievements if the much desired political objective 1983
9 The Phenomenon of Political defection in India assumed large proportions in recent years. Bring out the factor responsible for the growth of this phenomenon. Is it right to say than ban on defection will amount to suppression of thought and action? 45 1981

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: A wake up call on proprietary seeds

Issue: Intellectual property rights

Syllabus: General Studies-III - Environment - Environmental Degradation

Context: Though the Pepsi enterprise has withdrawn the lawsuit, it does not address the real issues which are plaguing the small farmers in India

Highlights

  1. What is the case about? Pepsi Co had recently filed lawsuits against a few small farmers in Gujarat for violating the company’s intellectual property rights on a variety of potato called FC5.
  2. Main issue in the lawsuit: Pepsi Co has IPR rights on FC5. It allows this seeds to be grown by farmers if they are willing to join in with Pepsi co as ‘participating farmers’, participation such as that would entail they do resell those seeds or the output to any other company. However, Pepsi has alleged a few section of farmers have used their FC5 to create a better indigenous seeds which are exchanged between the farmers.
  3. Issues with such proprietary seeds:
  • It hurts the biodiversity by pushing for only one variety of seeds
  • Creates seed dependency among farmers
  • Seeds should be suited to local conditions. Such thing does not happen in proprietary seeds
  1. What should be done? Educate farmers, encourage farmers to do develop new variety of seeds using traditional methods, promote record-keeping of seeds produced in India so that incentivize continuous cultivation and improvement of indigenous seeds on the one hand, and ensure sustainable growth of agriculture and of rural communities on the other

Takeaway point: Pepsi Co should be treated as a wake-up call to the government and policymakers who need to do much more to secure sustainable rural societies, protect soil health and promote seed sovereignty for the economic development of Indian farmers and of the entire nation.

Keywords: proprietary seeds Pepsi Co Biodiversity loss
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 Explain the phenomenon of ozone depletion, its cause and effects . What efforts are needed to reduce it. (250 words) 2007
2 Examine the effect of economic development on environmental degradation in India. (150 words) 2004
3 What is Integrated Wastelands Development Programme? (150 words) 2002
4 Write briefly about the Desert Development Programme. (150 words) 2002
5 There is a wide-spread concern about the degradation of environment and the problem that go with it. Assess the international response. (150 words) 2000
6 How is deforestation of Himalayas disturbing the ecological balance of north India? (150 words) 1999
7 What is ozone hole? How is it caused and what are its implications for life on Earth? (150 words) 1999
8 Which parts of India have been identified as draught prone? Mention the norms for such identification. (150 words) 1998
9 Why has the Narmada River Valley Project attracted the attention of the common people? (150 words) 1997
10 Which parts of India are described as ‘arid zones’ Comment on the characteristics and economic activities prevalent in these regions? (150 words) 1993
11 . Account for the varied environmental problems resulting from wide spread deforestation in both Aravallis and Himalayan regions. (150 words) 1991
12 What are the main recommendations of the Montreal Protocol to protect the Ozone layer? What are the implications for India of the latest convention held at London (About 250 words)? 1990
13 What is Sardar Sarovar Project? What is the nature of the controversy surrounding it? (150 words) 1989
14 List major areas of wasteland in India. Discuss on the prospects of Wasteland development ,briefly explaining it impact on the food, fodder and fuel supply. 1986
15 Felling of trees indiscriminately is considered a crime against society. Why is there emphasis against indiscriminate felling and for planting new ones? Discuss the present policy of Farm forestry in our country. 1983

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: Circle of life

Issue: Global assessment report

Syllabus: General Studies-III - Environment - Environmental Degradation

Context: The global assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has stressed the biodiversity loss which would lead to extinction of many species

Highlights

  1. Observations made in the report which are harming the biodiversity
  • Catastrophic erosion of ecosystems is being driven by unsustainable use of land and water
  • direct harvesting of species, climate change, pollution and release of alien plants and animals in new habitats
  • stress on the devastation occurring in tropical areas
  1. the report has called for ecosystem services being included in the productivity estimates
  2. What are ecosystem services? Birds which feed on the pests’ thereby ensuring good yield.
  3. Significance of ecosystem services: they are vital for food production, for clean air and water, provision of fuel for millions, absorption of carbon in the atmosphere, and climate moderation.
  4. The ecosystem services are being severely hindered by rising pollution in the name of development. Example: marine plastic pollution has increased tenfold since 1980, affecting at least 267 species, including 86% of marine turtles, 44% of seabirds and 43% of marine mammals.

Takeaway point: Ecosystem services are vital for the survival of life on earth. It is critical that we reduce the pollution that is harming the biodiversity. Quantifying such ecosystem services might influence policy makers to take bold decisions

Keywords: Global assessment report Biodiversity loss economic services
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 Explain the phenomenon of ozone depletion, its cause and effects . What efforts are needed to reduce it. (250 words) 2007
2 Examine the effect of economic development on environmental degradation in India. (150 words) 2004
3 What is Integrated Wastelands Development Programme? (150 words) 2002
4 Write briefly about the Desert Development Programme. (150 words) 2002
5 There is a wide-spread concern about the degradation of environment and the problem that go with it. Assess the international response. (150 words) 2000
6 How is deforestation of Himalayas disturbing the ecological balance of north India? (150 words) 1999
7 What is ozone hole? How is it caused and what are its implications for life on Earth? (150 words) 1999
8 Which parts of India have been identified as draught prone? Mention the norms for such identification. (150 words) 1998
9 Why has the Narmada River Valley Project attracted the attention of the common people? (150 words) 1997
10 Which parts of India are described as ‘arid zones’ Comment on the characteristics and economic activities prevalent in these regions? (150 words) 1993
11 . Account for the varied environmental problems resulting from wide spread deforestation in both Aravallis and Himalayan regions. (150 words) 1991
12 What are the main recommendations of the Montreal Protocol to protect the Ozone layer? What are the implications for India of the latest convention held at London (About 250 words)? 1990
13 What is Sardar Sarovar Project? What is the nature of the controversy surrounding it? (150 words) 1989
14 List major areas of wasteland in India. Discuss on the prospects of Wasteland development ,briefly explaining it impact on the food, fodder and fuel supply. 1986
15 Felling of trees indiscriminately is considered a crime against society. Why is there emphasis against indiscriminate felling and for planting new ones? Discuss the present policy of Farm forestry in our country. 1983

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: A travesty of justice

Issue: Due process of law

Syllabus: General Studies-II - Indian Polity and Constitution - Judiciary

The fairness of the procedure in dealing with the recent sexual harassment allegation with the Chief justice of India has been questioned by many.

Highlights

  1. Issues with the process adopted
    1. Principles of natural justice were violated when Chief Justice of India who himself is an accused was allowed to appoint a committee
    2. The committee was further not adequately represented to deal with sexual harassment matter.
    3. The complainant was not allowed to appear with her lawyer, neither was she given a copy of the report of the committee
    4. Consequences of such a process: It erodes trust in the institution, violates Article 21 of the constitution which lays emphasis on ‘Procedure established by law’

Takeaway point: No person is bigger than the institution. The constitutional values that Supreme Court is entrusted with protection as been not followed in dealing with the sexual harassment case against the CJI

Keywords: 'Due process of law' 'Procedure established by law' 'Fair procedure'
 

# Previous UPSC Question Marks Year
1 How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (15) 2018
2 Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. (150 words) 2017
3 What is meant by Judicial Activism? Evaluate its role in the context of the functioning of Indian Polity. (250 words) 15 marks 2008
4 Is the High Courts’ power to issue ‘writs’ wider than that of the Supreme Court of India? (150 words) 2006
5 Is it possible to distinguish between judicial review and judicial activism in India? Does the recent behavior of the Indian judiciary partake more of judicial activism? Argue with suitable example. (250 words) 2005
6 What is the position of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of India? How far does it play its role as guardian of the Constitution? (150 words) 2002
7 Explain Public Interest Litigation. Who can file it and on what basis can it be rejected by the Court of Law? (150 words) 2000
8 Present your views for and against the creation of an All India Judicial Service 150 words 1997
9 What is meant by ‘Judicial Activism’ Evaluate its role in reducing corruption in public life. 150 Words 1996
10 What is the position of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of India? Discuss its role as a guardian of the Constitution (About 250 words) 1995
11 Explain the significance of the April 1994 Supreme Court judgement on the proclamation of President's rule. (150 Words) 1994
12 What was the magnitude of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and what were the salient features of the Supreme Court verdict on the Bhopal as Tragedy? (150 Words) 1991

Currently there are no previous questions available.


Title: Taking tensions seriously

Issue: India-US bilateral relationship

Syllabus: General Studies-II - International Relations - India's Strategic Choices - Economic diplomacy

Context: Bilateral relations between India-USA have developed well in the last few years, however, there are many irritants which could hamper further progress in the relationship

Highlights

  1. India has stepped up its relations with USA in defence sector. Like signing many defence deals such as Chinook helicopters, co-operation in dealing with cyber security attacks, frequent high level interactions between armed forces in the form of joint exercise.
  2. However, the progress achieved in the defence sector has not been transformed into progress in other sectors. Example: Sanction on Iran which would affect India, U.S.’s decision to withdraw GSP benefits for Indian exports, India’s policies on e-commerce, intellectual property rights and data localization.
  3. India and USA have often stressed on the strategic partnership angle between the two countries.
  4. However, the partnership is not being broad-based in other sectors apart from defence
  5. What needs to be done? Efforts should be made to establish trust and cooperation across a wide spectrum of issues between the two countries

Takeaway point: India should establish consensus on various issues that have become irritants in India-USA relationship

Keywords: 'Economic diplomacy' 'India-USA relationship' 'Trade issues'
 

Currently there are no previous questions available.

Currently there are no previous questions available.