Title: Balancing work
Issue: ILO report: ‘A quantum leap for gender equality: For a better future of work for all
Syllabus: General Studies-I - Society - Role of women and women's organisations
ILO report emphasises on underlyign gender bias in unpaid care work is a critical factor contributing to Gender inequality.
The impact of unpaid work on women manifests itself at many levels.
There is motherhood penalty (which means that mothers in the workforce experience additional disadvantages compared to women who are not mothers)
there is also the parenthood employment gap that unfairly privileges fathers. There is a wage penalty associated with motherhood, as opposed to a wage premium linked to fatherhood, over an entire career span.This translates into a leadership penalty.
A skewed distribution of unpaid work yields unequal dividends from educational attainments. Among women and men having equal qualifiaitons, men have better yields comapred to women.
Onlyabout 25% of women with young children are said to occupy managerial positions. This contrasts with some 75% among fathers in comparable situations.
Among adults with a university degree, 41.5% of women are either unemployed or outside the labour force, compared to 17.2% among men
Take Home Points
A rebalancing of current roles is critical to expand thearena of paid work for women. It promotes women’s participation in the workforce.
|#||Previous UPSC Question||Marks||Year|
|1||‘Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view. (15)||15||2018|
|2||The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What are the major issues and debates concerning women in that period? (250 words)||15||2017|
|3||“Male membership needs to be encouraged in order to make women’s organization free from gender bias.” Comment. (200 words) 10 marks||10||2013|
|4||What efforts have been made for the upliftment of women in Ninetenth Century till the present day||1985|
|5||In recent times bride burning has increased. Women are tortured for not bringing sufficient dowry. Why such cases are rare amongst Muslims? What measures are being taken by the government to end this pernicious system of dowry and bride burning? What further steps can be taken in your opinion.||1983|
|6||The most striking change in our social life today is the improved statures of women. Who and what organisations helped their cause enabling them to attain that present status? What important safeguards have been provided in the Constitution and the laws of the land for protection of women's interests? In what directions are further legal measures for their protection called for (Not more than 200 words)?||1980|
Currently there are no previous questions available.